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A string of Piper nigrum green pepper
piper nigrum
Piper nigrum (Black Pepper)

The tropical vine Piper nigrum hails from southern India and Sri Lanka, flourishing in the lush, humid, and mountainous regions of the Malabar Coast. The species is a hardy perennial, thriving in similar tropical conditions across the globe, reaching up to 10 meters in length​. It has also been introduced and cultivated in various other tropical regions. Black Pepper is celebrated not just for its ubiquitous use as a culinary spice but also for its medicinal properties. The spice, and specifically its component piperine, is linked to a multitude of health benefits. These include anti-inflammatory effects, cancer-fighting properties, immune support, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic activities, and even cognitive brain function enhancement. Its antimicrobial properties are also believed to be beneficial for respiratory health, aiding in soothing coughs, sore throats, and congestion when combined with honey. Commercially, Black Pepper is a globally significant spice and is primarily produced by Brazil, Malaysia, Indonesia, and India. The species is also known for its cultivars and hybrids developed for various agricultural and medicinal applications. Photographed in Medellin, Colombia.

Piper nigrum unripe drupes in sunlight

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